Surgical extraction is used if a tooth has broken off at the gum line or has not come out in the mouth yet. Wisdom teeth or third molars are the last set of teeth to develop. There are times when they fail to erupt completely through the gum line and become impacted between the jawbone and the gum tissue. Impacted wisdom teeth can result in swelling, pain, and infection of the gum tissue surrounding the wisdom teeth. In addition, impacted wisdom teeth can cause permanent damage to nearby teeth, gums, and bone and can sometimes lead to the formation of cysts or tumors that can destroy sections of the jaw. They need to be surgically removed in order to avoid the occurrence of these problems.